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Antimicrobial Resistance: A 21st Century Public Health Threat


AUTHOR: Louis G. DePaola, DDS

AUDIENCE: Dentists; Dental Hygienists; Dental Assistants; Specialists; Office Staff

ABSTRACT: As the widespread use and misuse of antibiotic/antimicrobial drugs continues in present-day healthcare, more and more cases are being reported that first-line drugs are failing to resolve a number of infections from the evolution of resistant organisms. Furthermore, this phenomenon is not limited to only bacteria, but also antiviral, anti-fungal  and anti-parasitic drugs as well, which are rapidly becoming less and less effective as increased use persists.


  • Learn why antimicrobial resistance has existed for decades, but recently has developed into a major public health crisis from the overuse and misuse of antibiotic drugs.
  • Discover how new resistance mechanisms, such as NDM-1, are producing highly resistant and easily transmissible strains of microorganisms, while new (and effective) antimicrobial drugs are dwindling at an alarming rate.
  • Learn about certain organisms that have already developed such a high degree of resistance that only a few (or in some cases) no antimicrobial agents remain effective—which ultimately will permit the evolution of “superbugs”.

CLINICAL CATEGORY: Infection Control

CE ACTIVITY:  Self-Instructional


COST: $20.00

PUBLISH DATE: February 15, 2012

EXPIRATION DATE: February 15, 2015

Sponsored by:


COURSE CONTENT: The information and opinions contained in this CE course are those of the author, and do not necessarily reflect the views of The Richmond Institute for Continuing Dental Education, or its affiliates. Any brand or product name mentioned throughout this course should not be inferred as an endorsement of any kind by the aforementioned parties. In addition, The Richmond Institute does not warrant or make any representations concerning the accuracy or reliability of the materials on this website, or any site(s) that are linked to

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Dr. DePaola has received research support from Colgate® and serves as a consultant for Biotrol™, Colgate®, Dentsply, Johnson and Johnson, and The Richmond Institute. The Richmond Institute for Continuing Dental Education is a division of Young Innovations, Inc..  It is dedicated to ensuring that its continuing dental education programs are intended for the sole purpose of education and do not serve as an endorsement for any product(s) or service(s), including those of the sponsoring company.

FEEDBACK AND QUESTIONS: After the course has been completed, an evaluation form will be emailed to the user to provide valuable feedback on the information just presented. If you have additional feedback, questions for the author, or need technical assistance please email

SCORING: To earn credit for completing a course from The Richmond Institute for Continuing Dental Education, participants must earn an overall score of 80 percent or above on the associated exam before receiving a certificate that confirms CE accreditation. (*NOTE: There is no limit to the number of times a participant may re-take the exam in order to obtain this passing score). All courses that are published on this site are categorized as self-instructional—which means participants must complete the course on their own time and submit the accurate payment in order to earn CE credit.

PAYMENT POLICY: As of October 1, 2011, participants must pay online before taking the exam for any course listed on this website to receive verification of CE credit. No other form of payment will be accepted. Expenses must be paid with a valid credit card; acceptable forms include: Visa, MasterCard, Discover, or American Express. The Richmond Institute can only accept payments from individuals who live and/or practice in the United States or select U.S. Territories. Course material may not be resold or republished for any commercial purposes acknowledgement from The Richmond Institute.

CANCELLATION/REFUND POLICY: All courses purchased from this website are final and non-refundable.

STATE DENTAL PRACTICE ACT: It is the responsibility of the participant to adhere to all laws and regulations proposed by the state that he or she is licensed to practice in. The Richmond Institute and its authors are not responsible for the participants’ use or misuse of the techniques and procedures discussed in this course.

LIMITED KNOWLEDGE RISK: The information provided in this course may not be comprehensive enough for implementation into professional dental practice. It is highly recommended that additional information be attained once the course is completed to establish greater proficiency on the topic at hand.

 The Richmond Institute for Continuing Dental Education is an ADA CERP Recognized Provider.  ADA CERP is a service of the American Dental Association to assist dental professionals in identifying quality providers of continuing dental education.  ADA CERP does not approve or endorse individual courses or instructors, nor does it imply acceptance of credit hours by boards of dentistry.  Concerns or complaints about a CE provider may be directed to the provider or to ADA CERP at

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